Jim Rich developed this “new” approach to restructuring the typical physical education class to take advantage of the latest recommendations found in educational research. K-8
Editor’s Note: Jim Rich is known across the United States for his work with helping physical educators understand the need to have a sound and well-structured physical education program that meets the needs of all students, including those with disabilities. He has developed a “new” approach to restructuring the typical physical education class to take advantage of the latest recommendations found in educational research.
High-Yield Physical Education (HYPE)TM: High-Yield Physical Education (HYPE) restructures the typical physical education class by incorporating the following seven lesson elements:
- Instant Activity
- Warm-Up Activity
- Active Roll Call
- Circuit Training
- Skill Instruction
- Small-Sided Game Play/Lead-Up Game
(1) Instant Activity: This activity is designed to get the students engaged “as soon as the first student comes out of the locker room” and/or get the students moving as soon as they enter the gym. This activity usually uses music. This is about 2-3 minutes long, just enough time to complete the “active roll call” (see below).
(2) Warm-Up Activity: This is an activity designed to increase heart rate, blood circulation, and maximize the percentage of time students are in “moderate to vigorous physical activity” (MVPA). Many times, the instant activity can also serve as a warm-up activity too.
(3) Active Roll Call: Unlike the traditional “passive roll call,” an “active roll call” is a strategy where the teacher takes attendance while the students are engaged in the instant activity or warm-up activity.
(4) Circuit Training: Students perform strength and muscle endurance exercises with and/or without equipment.
(5) Skill Instruction: “Core content” skill instruction that is taught with students having a piece of equipment (e.g., if teaching dribbling skills, each student would have a basketball or a ball that bounces).
(6) Small-Sided Game Play: The “application” portion of the lesson where the students use the skills in a small-sided game or game-like situation.
(7) Closure/Cool-Down/Stretching: This reinforces the appropriate practice of stretching while the body is warm and serves as a way to “wrap-up” the class. Some teachers end class with a “group shout” (e.g., “Effort!”) in the same manner used with athletic teams.
Benefits: There are numerous benefits associated with physical education programs incorporating the HYPE elements. These include:
- Decreasing student BMI (body mass index) levels.
- Increasing student fitness levels.
- Increasing the number of students making progress toward identified state physical education standards.
- Increasing the percentage of time students are physically active during physical education class time.
- Increasing student participation and satisfaction.
- Increasing teacher satisfaction.
Basic HYPE Principles: There are six basic underlying instructional principles for HYPE. These include:
(1) “Down Time is Bad Time.” Minimize any down time during the class.
(2) “If You Don’t Work Them, They’ll Work You!” Keep the students on-task; they’ll be less likely to “work you.”
(3) “No Sitting.” Students never (or rarely) sit in a HYPE physical education class.
(4) “140 = MVPA.” Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) occurs when heart rate is above 140 beats/minute. When students are at this level for 50 percent of your class, a greater percentage of body fat is burned.
(5) “Everyone Has Equipment.” HYPE programs have enough equipment for every student.
(6) “Staff Development.” HYPE programs spend a greater percentage of funds for teacher staff development than traditional physical education programs.
Background: Here’s an example of a HYPE structured lesson using a teacher-designed formation called the “Belt Line.”
- Cones, Polyspots, Balls
- Locomotor signs
- Fitness circuit signs
Set-Up: Place the cones and polyspots as shown below to create the Belt Line consisting of an outer and inner track.
- Instant Activity (Walkie-Talkie): Upon entering the activity area all of the students will walk at a brisk pace in a counter clockwise direction using the “outer belt line.” Music from the CD/cassette player will dictate the pace. During this time, the teacher is positioned at a corner of the gym and will visually take attendance as the students pass by. Students are allowed to walk/talk with 1-2 friends as long as they are able to keep pace to the music.
- Warm-Up Activity #1 (4 Corners): Once attendance has been taken, the teacher will direct the students to move according to the signs placed on each of the four outer cones. The signs indicate four different locomotor movements (i.e.. run, slide, grapevine. skip). Students change movements as they move from one corner to another. For example, the students would skip until they reach the corner with the “Grapevine” sign. From this corner, they perform the grapevine step until they reach the next cone. A different locomotor skill is performed from cone to cone. Again, the purpose of the warm-up activities is to elevate a student’s heart rate to 140 beats/minute as to increase MVPA to 50 percent of the PE class time.
- Warm-Up Activity #2 (The Inner Belt Line): Direct the students to find a partner and walk side-by-side around the outer belt line. Once everyone has a partner, they select a polyspot and stand on opposite sides, facing each other. One partner faces to the outside, the other faces to the inside.
Meeting Spots: This polyspot is the “meeting spot” for each partner. Now, the students who are facing out start to power walk clockwise on the inner belt line. The students facing in start to jog around the outer belt line going counter clockwise. When the partners get back to the “meeting spot,” they give each other a “high-five” and then exchange places (from outer beltline to inner belt line, inner belt line to outer) and continue moving in opposite directions by power walking or jogging as shown below.
- Skill Instruction #1 (Partner Basketball Pass): Once the students are comfortable with the concept of the “meeting spot,” have the students in the inner belt line get a basketball from the center area. Review the proper way to perform chest and bounce passes. The students practice the passes with their partner. The chest pass is performed over the polyspot and the bounce pass is done so it hits the polyspot when it bounces.
- Circuit Training (Exit Ramp): After practicing the chest and bounce passes, the students in the inner belt line dribble the balls in a clockwise direction and back to the “meeting spot.” At the same time, the students in the outer belt line begin jogging counter clockwise. When they get to the first corner cone, they “exit” and perform the exercise indicated on the cone. Four new cones with fitness circuit signs [i.e., Do 5 Push-Ups, Do 10 Oblique Crunches, Do 10 Seated Rows (with latex bands), Do 10 Reverse Sit-Ups] were placed there by the teacher as the students were doing the basketball passes.
When the exercises are completed, the student continues to jog around the outer belt line and meets his partner at the “meeting spot.” The basketball is exchanged and the two students change places. The student who was on the outer belt line now dribbles the basketball as his partner jogs to the first cone and exits to perform the exercise. When doing the exercises, the students need to stay clear of the joggers. Only one “exit ramp” is taken during each round. For example, if a student exits at the “10 Seated Rows,” he does the ten seated rows using the latex bands, then proceeds to jog around the other three cones and back to meet his partner. On the next round, the student jogs to the second cone (Reverse Sit-Ups). This continues until every student has completed four rounds and has performed the exercises at each “exit ramp.”
- Skill Instruction #2 (Partner Speed Dribble): After reviewing proper dribbling techniques, the students on the outer belt line are signaled to start running counter clockwise. At the same time, their partner starts dribbling in and out of the cones. One point is awarded to the player who gets back to the “meeting spot” first. Continue by changing places and play several rounds.
- Small-Sided/Game-Like Play (Ball Tag): The students pass the basketball back and forth to their partner. During this time, music is being played. When the music stops, the players with the basketball start dribbling the ball anywhere in the gym. The players without the ball close their eyes. After about 5 seconds, the teacher will shout “go!” This is the signal for the players without the ball to find and tag their partner. When tagged, the two players stand on opposite sides of a nearby polyspot and wait. When the music begins again, all of the partners begin passing the ball back and forth as the game continues.
- Closure/Cool-Down/Stretching [What I Learned Today (WILT)]: The students are in a large circle formation and perform a variety of stretching exercises. During the stretches, the teacher asks “What did you learn today?” The teacher will call on numerous students as they share what they learned in physical education class that day. “What I Learned Today” (WILT) is a neat closure activity that will provide your students with a ready-made answer when their parents ask: “What did you learn in school today?”
Closing Thoughts: For most of us, the seven HYPE lesson elements (e.g., instant activity, active roll call) and the six HYPE principles (e.g., “Down Time is Bad Time,” “No Sitting in PE”) just reinforce sound physical education teaching. These are things most of us have been doing for years to increase time-on-task and physical activity levels. However, this “non-stop” way of presenting physical education now has research-based evidence showing it is a sound obesity-prevention model too!
HYPE “Belt Line” Lessons Wanted! As you begin incorporating the basic “Belt Line” formation into your teaching, please feel free to send us your ideas, modifications, and lessons based on this interesting instructional model. Thanks!
High-Yield Physical Education (HYPE) is a trademark of Great Activities Publishing Company.